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Coming dissertations at Uppsala university

  • Feber i interaktion : Kropp, kunskap och legitimitet i svenska primärvårdssamtal Author: Klara Bertils Link: Publication date: 2022-05-20 09:40

    This thesis explores the social and interactional dimensions of fever and body temperature. Using the theoretical and methodological framework of Conversation Analysis, this thesis investigates how patients and healthcare professionals talk about fever, measure body temperature and negotiate the significance of temperature measurements in acute primary care encounters. The analysis pays close attention to verbal, embodied, and material interactional resources. Data are drawn from a larger corpus of video-recorded Swedish acute primary care consultation (Uppsala University Interaction Corpus (UUIC): Primary Care) and consist of 97 encounters between healthcare professionals and adult patients presenting with respiratory tract symptoms. The main focus is on patients’ interactions with registered nurses and healthcare assistants. 

    The three analytical chapters deal with different aspects of body temperature during the consultation. First, talk about fever in patients’ problem presentations is investigated. The analysis suggests that patients and nurses treat fever as an urgent matter when establishing patients’ reasons for seeking care. Patients reference fever when they present their condition as worthy of medical attention and treatment, and fever may be posed as a component of a candidate diagnosis. Second, a multimodal analysis of temperature measurement shows how participants jointly accomplish a transition from the patient-as-subject to the patient-as-object for investigation. The analysis illustrates how patients and nurses rely on changes in body orientation and gaze when initiating, attending, and accomplishing such activity shifts as well as how visible manipulation of the thermometer constitutes a crucial resource in the rearrangement of activity-appropriate participation frameworks. Third, talk about expected and reported results of temperature measurement are investigated. Here, it is demonstrated that patients can both claim and be offered an epistemic position of independent expertise regarding body temperature. The corpus also includes cases where patients challenge the nurse's interpretation of a numerical measurement by suggesting an alternative way of understanding the measurement. Such cases expose how seemingly "objective" references for establishing normality can be invoked and contested.

    By describing and shedding light on the linguistic and social dimensions of a routine clinical task, this study contributes to the field of medical interaction as well as to broader topics in language and social interaction such as self-presentation, epistemic orientation and negotiation, and the multimodal organization of jointly achieved activities.

  • Micropatterning of hyaluronic acid hydrogels for in vitro models Author: Ana María Porras Hernández Link: Publication date: 2022-05-19 14:34

    The human body consist of a vast number of cells, and jointly, the cells, form tissues and organs. The cells interact and respond to their local microenvironment. The cellular microenvironment consists of a highly hydrated and compliant extracellular matrix, neighboring cells and circulating biochemical factors; and jointly, provide chemical and physical cues that regulate cell behaviour However, these cues are often not present in traditional in vitro models, where cells experience a stiff and unstructured environment. 

    An approach to better mimic the in vivo microenvironment in vitro is to use hydrogels. Hydrogels are soft and highly hydrated polymers based on materials naturally found in the extracellular matrix of various tissues. Furthermore, these materials can be chemically functionalized to control the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of the hydrogels. These functionalities can also be used to prepare micrometre sized cell adhesive regions, or micropatterns, on the hydrogel substrate. The micropatterns guide the cell shape and permit the study of the cell response to these changes in shape and function, which has been observed in e.g., endothelial cells from various origins. 

    Taken all together, the aim of this work was to develop a hydrogel-based cell culture substrate that permits the control of the spatial adhesion of brain endothelial cells in order to study the morphological effects on these cells and contribute to the understanding of the function of brain endothelial cells in health and disease. 

    This thesis demonstrates the functionalization of hyaluronic acid, a naturally occurring extracellular matrix polymer, to prepare photocrosslinkable hydrogels. Then, through photolithography, micropatterns of cell adhesive peptides were prepared on these hydrogels. Brain microvascular endothelial cells, a highly specialized type of endothelial cells, adhered to the micropatterns, and the effect on their alignment and cell chirality depending on the micropatterned sized was studied. Furthermore, changes in their alignment were also observed when exposed to different glucose concentration.

  • Image-based multi-omics data integration : Exploring whole-body PET/MRI, -omics data and body composition Author: Robin Visvanathar Link: Publication date: 2022-05-19 14:11

    Advanced body composition analysis with whole-body imaging could uncover novel associations between regional tissue composition and metabolic disease. Imiomics is an automated image analysis framework that enables large-scale integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and orthogonal technologies such as metabolomics and genomics for the detailed study of body composition. The Imiomics method is based on spatial normalisation to attain voxel-to-voxel correspondence in large cohorts of volumetric MR images. The spatially normalised data is then further used to generate voxel-wise statistical inference volumes for analysis. In this thesis, Imiomics was integrated with metabolomics for the first time, providing a detailed map of the relationship between the metabolome and regional body composition in T2D. Furthermore, Imiomics was integrated with genomics for the first time, exposing detailed associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and sex-stratified body composition. A rapid and intuitive visual framework was developed for the analysis of volumetric Imiomics maps, and further applied to study the relationship between body composition and clinical variables in T2D. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET)/MR was used to study detailed insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism and its associations with tissue volume and tissue fat fraction. This thesis has contributed to the field of advanced body composition research, primarily through the integration of Imiomics with additional -omics platforms.