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Coming dissertations at Uppsala university

  • The Landed Municipality : The Underlying Rationales for Swedish Public Landownership and their Implications for Policy Author: Hanna Zetterlund Link: Publication date: 2022-08-16 11:30

    This thesis examines the role of public land in housing development in Sweden, focusing on how public authorities perceive their role as landowners, and with what consequences. The thesis is inspired by the work of Doreen Massey and Alejandrina Catalano on different forms of landownership under capitalism, exploring the nature of the relationship between land and landowner when the latter is a public authority.

    Control of land provides its owner with power over the built environment, as well as the right to capture value increases. In Sweden, large amounts of land are owned by public authorities, in particular municipalities, which have traditionally owned land primarily for two reasons: a) to ensure citizens share in land value increases, thereby generating a more just distribution of resources; and b) to improve control over urban development, thereby delivering access to affordable housing. Even as the Swedish housing system has been substantially transformed since the 1990s, 280 out of 290 municipalities still own land for housing purposes.

    The study investigates both the historical and the contemporary roles that public land has played for housing development in Swedish cities. The methods used include an interpretive analysis of Swedish Governmental Investigation Reports and interviews with local politicians in charge of public land assets in three Swedish municipalities: Stockholm, Örebro and Uppsala. The study uses the empirical material to disaggregate public landownership under capitalism into three main modalities of ownership underpinned by three different landownership rationales: a moral rationale characterized by an ethic of long-term responsibility; a productive rationale characterized by an orientation towards achievement of practical social goals; and an investment rationale characterized by prioritization of asset value.

    What emerges from the thesis is a new narrative of how Sweden's public land management has changed over the past century, and what this entails today for local landowning municipalities acting within the contemporary legislative framework. As such, the study contributes to new ways of understanding the role of the public landowners in all their different forms, bringing questions of land back into the centre of urban political-economic research.

  • The evolution of sexual dimorphism and its genetic underpinnings Author: Philipp Kaufmann Link: Publication date: 2022-08-16 10:59

    Sexual dimorphism often constitutes the largest phenotypic variance within species but it is puzzling how sexual dimorphisms evolve because most of the genome is shared between the sexes. Sexually antagonistic (SA) selection on a shared genome sets the stage for intralocus sexual conflict. In this thesis, I investigate the genetic basis of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus to understand which mechanisms facilitate sex-specific trait evolution. I combine quantitative genetics with artificial selection to examine how shared and sex-specific genetic variances dictate the evolvability of SSD under different forms of selection and test the hypothesis that SA selection maintains shared genetic variance while fueling the evolution of increased sex differences. Using genomic approaches, I identify the Y chromosome in C. maculatus, investigate how it contributes to SSD, and explore signatures of sex-specific dominance in gene expression as a potential mechanism to alleviate sexual conflict.

    While both sexes largely share autosomal genetic variance underlying body size, I find significant differences in dominance and sex-linked additive genetic variances that facilitate rapid responses in SSD to male-limited and especially SA selection. Compared to sex-limited directional selection, SA selection maintains more additive and particularly female specific dominance genetic variance. Further, I detect sex-specific dominance in expression of genes associated with SA traits in C. maculatus. These results are compatible with predictions that sex-specific dominance may be central to maintaining genetic variance under, and evolve in response to, SA selection.

    Despite its degeneration, Y-linked additive genetic variance has a large effect on male size, mirrored in rapid male limited responses to artificial selection, which depleted Y-linked genetic variance. Isolating the effect of the Y chromosome by introgressing different Y lineages into an isogenic background, reveals two distinct Y haplotypes responsible for changing SSD by 30%. Long-read sequencing and assembling the majority of the previously unknown Y chromosome in C. maculatus identified that – while both sexes share an autosomal deeply conserved eukaryotic growth regulator target of rapamycin (TOR) – males carry additional TOR copies on the Y chromosome, which to our knowledge is the first description of TOR on a sex chromosome. This suggests that male specific regulation of growth through a private TOR underlies the overall sexual size dimorphism in C. maculatus. In accordance with this, I identify TOR copy number variation between the Y haplotypes, where the Y haplotype associated with the more pronounced SSD harbors two additional TOR copies.

  • The Human Right to Leave: But Whereto? Author: Guilherme Marques Pedro Link: Publication date: 2022-08-15 12:24

    While all persons — with a few exceptions — are allowed to leave any country regardless of nationality, not all persons are allowed to enter any country of their choosing; and only citizens enjoy, in principle, the right to enter their country of nationality, which most often, and by necessity, is a restricted number of countries, since some of them prohibit multiple nationality. One claim that is frequently made in contemporary migration-related literature, and that much migration-related philosophical debate presupposes in one way or another, yet remains unexplored, is the claim that the right to leave a state – enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 – does not entail a right to enter another state. This claim is typically made in relation or conjunction with another (set of) claims: that this alleged state of affairs is wrong somehow, or vice versa, that it is not. This dissertation deals with both claims and offer a first systematic study of these. On the one hand, the aforementioned descriptive claim has caught the attention of many observers who have, for the most part, taken it as a fairly undisputed description of current international law. I defend the view I call descriptive legal symmetrism, according to which there already is a form of symmetry between entry and exit rights, albeit not the one that most scholars set out to look for. On the other hand, in the context of the normative set of claims made by some authors concerning whether this alleged state of affairs is either immoral or unlawful (or both) in that it would expose the migrant to moral injustice and a protection gap in the contemporary human rights regime (namely, that of having, after leaving a country, nowhere to go), I submit that the object of disagreement in the normative legal debate concerns whether or not we ought to use the law to enforce what I call ‘Proposition A’: ‘it is permitted that any person leaves any country (besides justified exceptions), therefore it is obligatory that all states permit entry (besides justified exceptions)’. I conclude that much of the debate focuses on matters that, albeit interesting in their own right, might not be what is at stake. I hope to contribute to the normative discussion by sorting out the different positions, illustrating their truth-making conditions, and stressing where a position depends on problematic assumptions.