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Coming dissertations at Uppsala university

  • Surgical Treatment of Pelvic Ring Injuries and Acetabular Fractures : Aspects on Patient-reported Outcome Author: Björn Hernefalk Link: Publication date: 2020-03-18 14:31

    The overall aim of the present thesis was to study the patient perspective on outcome following surgical treatment of pelvic ring injuries and acetabular fractures. All studies were based on patients treated for such injuries at the Department of Orthopaedics, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.

    In Study I, a patient-reported outcome measure to provide condition-specific information regarding outcome after surgical treatment of pelvic ring injuries was developed. Seventy-three patients were asked to complete a questionnaire at three time points during follow-up. Evaluation of data resulted in the Pelvic Discomfort Index (PDI). This instrument is comprised of six questions regarding residual problems from the pelvic region with respect to pain, walking, hip motion, leg numbness, sexual life and the operation scar.

    The influence of the time-point post-surgery at which patients with surgically treated pelvic ring injuries or acetabular fractures estimate their pre-traumatic state was examined in study II. Seventy-three patients assessed their pre-traumatic status at three time-points post-surgery. It was found that pre-traumatic quality of life was high and comparable to a reference population. Pre-existing discomfort from the pelvic region was uncommon. A tendency for patients to estimate a better pre-traumatic status when assessments were delayed was observed.

    The objective of Study III was to compare outcome after surgical treatment of complex acetabular fractures in the elderly using either the combined hip procedure, consisting of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in conjunction with an acute total hip arthroplasty, or ORIF alone with respect to mortality, need for secondary surgery and patient-reported outcome. Thirteen patients treated with the CHP were compared to 14 patients with similar fracture patterns treated with ORIF alone. The CHP conferred a markedly reduced need for secondary surgical procedures while no differences in perioperative mortality or patient-reported outcome could be demonstrated.

    Patient-reported outcome at five years following surgical treatment of pelvic ring injury was evaluated in study IV. The consequences of these injuries were found to be substantial and long-standing. Females reported a worse outcome than males, while influence of variables age, injury type and presence of associated injuries was limited.

    In Study V, patient experiences of life following treatment for pelvic ring injury was explored. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten patients at a median of 11 years after injury and analyzed using inductive content analysis. Patients described a heterogenous outcome, with residual impairment ranging from virtually none to severe disability. A need for adequate patient information and individual assessments of patients was noted.

  • Highly Concentrated Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries Author: Viktor Nilsson Link: Publication date: 2020-03-17 08:36

    The electrolyte is a crucial part of any lithium battery, strongly affecting longevity and safety. It has to survive rather severe conditions, not the least at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces. Current commercial electrolytes are almost all based on 1 M LiPF6 in a mixture of organic solvents and while these balance the many requirements of the cells, they are volatile and degrade at temperatures above ca. 70°C. The salt could potentially be replaced with e.g. LiTFSI, but dissolution of the Al current collector would be an issue. Replacing the graphite electrode by Li metal, for large gains in energy density, challenges the electrolyte further by exposing it to freshly deposited Li, leading to poor coulombic efficiency and consumption of both Li and electrolyte. Highly concentrated electrolytes (HCEs) have emerged as a possible remedy to all of the above, by a changed solvation structure where all solvent molecules are coordinated to cations – leading to a lowered volatility, a reduced Al dissolution, and higher electrochemical stability, at the expense of higher viscosity and lower ionic conductivity.

    In this thesis both the fundamentals and various approaches to application of HCEs to lithium batteries are studied. First, LiTFSI–acetonitrile electrolytes of different salt concentrations were studied with respect to electrochemical stability, including chemical analysis of the passivating solid electrolyte interphases (SEIs) on the graphite electrodes. However, some problems with solvent reduction remained, why second, LiTFSI–ethylene carbonate (EC) HCEs were employed vs. Li metal electrodes. Safety was improved by avoiding volatile solvents and compatibility with polymer separators was proven, making the HCE practically useful. Third, the transport properties of HCEs were studied with respect to salt solvation, viscosity and conductivity, and related to the rate performance of battery cells. Finally, LiTFSI–EC based electrolytes were tested vs. high voltage NMC622 electrodes.

    The overall impressive electrochemical stability improvements shown by HCEs do not generally overcome the inherent properties of the constituent parts, and parasitic reactions ultimately leads to cell failure. Furthermore, improvements in ionic transport can not be expected in most HCEs; on the contrary, the reduced conductivity leads to a lower rate capability. Based on this knowledge, turning to a concept of electrolyte compositions where the inherent drawbacks of HCEs are circumvented leads to surprisingly good electrolytes even for Li metal battery cells, and with additives, Al dissolution can be prevented also when using NMC622 electrodes.

  • En känsla för det heliga : En undersökning av den samtida emotionsforskningens möjliga bidrag till religionsfilosofin Author: Mikael Sörhuus Link: Publication date: 2020-03-13 13:18

    In this thesis I examine the possibility of critically using material from contemporary emotion theory to develop a fruitful model for understanding the potential epistemic relevance of emotions in religious contexts. The relevance of this thesis is mainly twofold: since religion is an emotional phenomenon, the possible normative epistemic role of emotions needs to be examined. This is a question for the philosophy of religion, but not one that has been much explored. Contemporary emotion research provides promising tools for such an examination, but these tools have only been utilized to a minor degree in the field.

    In chapter 1, the preliminaries for my inquiry is articulated. In chapters 2 and 3, I evaluate psychophysiological, psychological and philosophical emotion research and find that the philosophical reasons and the empirical evidence speak in favor of a perceptual theory of emotion. In chapter 4, I examine how emotions, being perceptions, are of epistemic relevance. Focusing on a metaphysical discourse I come to the conclusion that emotions are of strong epistemic relevance. In chapter 5, I examine the possibility of giving emotions, being perceptions that are of strong epistemic relevance, an epistemological framework. For this I use the pragmatic philosophy of John Dewey and conceive of emotions as habits, or part of habits, which are indispensable for certain human inquiries and knowings.

    In chapter 6 I turn to religion. I conceptualize religion as lived, and epistemic in that it offers certain goods that agents, being participants in religious spheres of practice, can utilize to deal with existential problems, inter alia, situations involving transcendence. My conclusion is that emotions, given the kind of problems that religious goods can help agents to handle, enable agents to examine the utility of such goods and implement them in their lives. Since this is an epistemic process, and these goods are utilized in many different spheres of practice, I choose to speak of emotions as enabling and justifying religious ways of life. In the end, emotions are about living and hence philosophical work about religious emotions becomes philosophical work about religious practice.