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Coming dissertations at Uppsala university

  • New Strategies for Transition Metal-mediated (Hetero)arene Functionalization Author: Fredric Ingner Link: Publication date: 2022-01-24 10:32

    This thesis describes new approaches to achieve efficient and selective (hetero)arene derivatization using transition metals. The main focus falls on the use of strategies based on C–H activation and organo-main group reactivity to render the synthesis of various (hetero)arene derivatives more direct, efficient, regioselective and sustainable. In the first two papers, transition metals are used to expedite the synthesis of aryne precursors and aryne capture products, as well as to influence the regioselectivity with which arynes may be made to react (Papers I and II). Paper I describes a new approach to the synthesis of aryne precursors from readily available arylboronic acids via a Ru-catalyzed C–H silylation protocol. The method tolerates a wide range of functional groups, affords access to new aryne motifs and only requires a single purification over multiple synthetic steps. Paper II explores how regioselectivity of aryne capture reactions can be enhanced significantly by remote cyclometallation using Ru, Rh and Ir. This work marks the first demonstration of exclusive regioselectivity in aryne capture reactions using only inductive electronic effects of a remotely substituted electropositive group.Papers III and IV concerns the synthesis of diverse aryl-AuI complexes under sustainable conditions. Paper III describes the use of a class of nucleophilic arylboronates, Ar-B(triol)K, to prepare aryl-AuI complexes in green solvents under ambient conditions without the requirement of exogenous additives or complex, expensive or time-consuming purification steps. This work is built upon in Paper IV where reaction solvents could be avoided altogether by employing a mechanochemical protocol and automated milling. The conditions developed allowed for C–H auration of various previously inaccessible (hetero)arenes and even the late-stage C–H auration of biologically active molecules. Both papers describe experiments performed to elucidate the intermediates and mechanism of C–H auration.

  • Negative symptoms, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and heart rate variability in schizophrenia and depression Author: Johan Bengtsson Link: Publication date: 2022-01-21 09:40

    Negative symptoms comprise anhedonia, avolition, and blunted affect. Although first described in schizophrenia, these symptoms share phenomenology with the depressive state. Pharmacological treatment has not been successful in reducing negative symptoms. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-pharmacological treatment option for moderate to severe depression. There have also been attempts to treat negative symptoms in both schizophrenia and depression with rTMS.

    Cardiovascular disease is common in schizophrenia and depression. Heart rate variability (HRV) is an established proxy for cardiac autonomic functioning and numerous studies have found lower HRV in patients with schizophrenia and depression. The impact of psychopharmacological treatment on HRV has been extensively studied and anticholinergic compounds have been found to decrease HRV.

    Lastly, since the most commonly used rTMS depression targets are also the brain regions involved in central autonomic regulation, there is reason to consider a potential effect of rTMS on HRV.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate negative symptoms, rTMS, and HRV in schizophrenia and depression.

    Study I was a validation study of a Swedish translation of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). Thirty-four patients with schizophrenia were interviewed and it was concluded that the Swedish version of the CAINS exhibited acceptable psychometric properties.

    Study II was a double-blind randomized controlled trial of rTMS for negative symptoms in schizophrenia and depression. There was a significant decrease of negative symptoms in the depression group, but not in the schizophrenia group. There were no effects on overall depressive symptoms in either group.

    Study III assessed determinants of HRV in schizophrenia, depression, and healthy controls. The results indicated lower HRV in both patient groups, even after controlling for several factors, and also that anticholinergic burden impacted HRV.

    In Study IV, the relationship between HRV and the functional and structural connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex was investigated in patients with schizophrenia and compared with that in healthy controls. It was found that connectivity with the cerebellum might play a role in the autonomic modulation network in patients with schizophrenia.

    Lastly, in Study V, the effect of a treatment course with rTMS on HRV was investigated in patients with depression, as well as HRV’s relationship to symptom change. No effects on HRV were detected, nor any correlations between HRV and symptom change. Further, baseline HRV could not predict treatment response.

  • Lived Pentecostalism in India : Middle Class Women and Their Everyday Religion Author: Julia Kuhlin Link: Publication date: 2022-01-20 12:27

    In recent decades, the Pentecostal movement in India has not only grown significantly, it has also become increasingly diverse. While the majority of the movement’s adherents still belong to marginalized groups in Indian society, middle-class Pentecostals are growing in number and changing the dynamics and identity of the movement. 

    This dissertation explores middle-class Pentecostal Christianity as a lived religion in India. More precisely, the aim is to better understand how female members of middle-class Pentecostal churches express and experience their religion in the context of their everyday lives. In addition, it examines what it might mean to be a Pentecostal and middle class in contemporary India. 

    The analysis suggests that, for the participants, it was a relational project to live as a Pentecostal. The women were engaged in a common effort together with God to realize shared goals connected to their religious lives, such as, working on the self and living according to God’s plan. While largely dismissing rigid and ritualistic religious behavior codes, the women were nonetheless in agreement on the importance of living a Christ-like life. However, in contrast to many other Indian Pentecostal contexts, this moral imperative did not involve withdrawal from “the world”. Rather, it was closely related to their emotional lives in that they strived to resemble Christ by being loving, humble, and grateful. The study also draws attention to how the women’s religion, to a significant extent, revolved around handling worries and concerns. Despite being in a privileged economic position that provided the women with a relatively comfortable standard of living, they experienced their everyday lives as unstable and insecure. The analysis shows how their religion was a resource that empowered and aided them in tackling these uncertainties while at the same time brought on a sense of vulnerability.  

    The study is based on six months of fieldwork in the North Indian city of Gurugram. The participants were members of the two middle-class churches, Loving Assemblies of God and Church of All Nations. During the fieldwork, a combination of methods was used, namely, participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and diaries.