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Coming dissertations at Uppsala university

  • Divergence, selection, demographic history and conservation genomics of sibling bird species in boreal forest in Northern Eurasia and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Author: Kai Song Link: Publication date: 2020-05-25 14:26

    I used two pairs of sibling boreal forest bird species to study divergence, selection, demographics, and conservation in northern Eurasia and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau at the microsatellite level (chapter 1) and whole genome level (chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5). In chapter 1, which is the first study to describe genetic diversity of the Sichuan Jay, I used microsatellite markers to estimate genetic differentiation in Sichuan Jay and Siberian Jay populations. The results showed similar levels of genetic variability, strong population structure, and high genetic differentiation between the two species and among different populations. In chapter 2, I used demographic analyses, and found that the Chinese Grouse has experienced substantial changes in population size from the beginning of the last interglacial, with a peak just before the last glacial maximum. The results inferred from the whole genome sequencing and species distribution models support a history of population size fluctuations. In chapter 3 to 5, I used population genomic methods to explore genomic variation, demographic divergence, local adaptation, and inbreeding from 29 whole genome re-sequenced individuals of Chinese Grouse and Hazel Grouse. I found strong evidence for population structure, changing demographic histories, and varying inbreeding levels and genetic load within both species. In Chinese Grouse, an isolated population in the northern part of the species range showed the lowest genetic diversity, high pairwise FST, high LD decay, higher inbreeding and genetic load compared to two other populations. In Hazel Grouse, there were strong population differences and inbreeding levels among the three populations, especially among the Swedish and German populations. The Swedish population likely lost genetic diversity during the re-colonization of the boreal forests in Scandinavia after the last glaciation. Analyses of genetic load showed that purifying selection of mildly deleterious mutations has been more efficient in Hazel Grouse, a species with a larger population size and range compared to Chinese Grouse. However, when I compared the genetic load as the ratio between highly deleterious loss-of-function mutations and synonymous mutations for Chinese Grouse and Hazel Grouse, purifying selection did not seem to have a large effect. My findings show that small, isolated and fragmented populations of forests birds loose genetic variation and may thereby become vulnerable to future challenges and also that populations may track past habitat changes and adapt to local conditions.

  • Banks, Shocks and Monetary Policy Author: Tamás Vasi Link: Publication date: 2020-05-25 09:14

    Essay 1: This paper studies the effect of monetary policy on the economy, distinguishing the effects of exogenous monetary policy shocks from information shocks that reveal the Federal Reserve's assessment of the economic outlook. To identify these two shocks, I exploit the difference in information content in public announcements by the Fed in its statements (released on decision days) and minutes of FOMC meetings (transcripts of the policy decision, released at a later date). Intuitively, the statements should give more information about monetary policy, while the minutes should contain more news about the economic outlook. I therefore maintain the assumption that the variances of monetary policy and information shocks should be different in statements and minutes. Following a similar approach to that of Rigobon and Sack (2003), I use an identification technique based on the heteroskedasticity of the two shocks. I find that the Fed does know more about macro variables and that monetary policy and information shocks have important but different effects on asset prices. Last, when I separate policy and information shocks, I find stronger effects of monetary policy on macroeconomic variables than when I use standard high-frequency identification.

  • Singing, Acting, and Interacting in Early Modern English Drama Author: Elisabeth Lutteman Link: Publication date: 2020-05-20 13:39

    The study examines ways in which singing figures as a strategy of action and interaction in early modern English drama. Inquiring into the dramatic role of song in plays performed on London’s public stages between c. 1590 and c. 1630, it draws on works by Francis Beaumont, Thomas Dekker, John Fletcher, Ben Jonson, John Marston, Thomas Middleton, William Shakespeare, and others, to trace diegetic motivations for and responses to songs and singing. The study finds that dramatic persons are portrayed employing song as a means to act, both in the sense of “taking action” and in the sense of “playacting”, presenting an image of themselves or stepping into a persona in order to achieve particular aims. They are also heard to employ it in attempts to create, maintain, or shape relationships to other dramatic persons, inviting to interaction, or enlisting the rhetorical and affective powers of song to move diegetic addressees. A chaste maid passing herself off as licentious, a beggar posing as an itinerant craftsman, a lover donning a disguise to get close to his beloved, a rogue setting out to pick pockets, a lecherous man attempting to seduce an honest wife – these dramatic persons are a motley crew by many counts, but they are all heard to turn to song as a strategy of acting and interacting. 

    Considering singing as an act undertaken with particular objectives and motivations, and as an interaction with effects on the relationship between dramatic persons, means both shifting focus from and adding dimensions to scholarly discussions of song as an intimate, profound, and sincere emotional expression on stage. The examples explored emphasise that dramatic persons sing not only because of who they are or what they feel, but because of what they want to be, how they want to be perceived, and what they want others to do and feel. Singing, the study argues, is a way of doing, being, and becoming on the early modern English stage.