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Coming dissertations at Uppsala university

  • Hippocampal circuit dynamics in learning and value processing of sensory cues : A study into the function of hippocampal microcircuits involving OLMα2 cells Author: Samer Siwani Link: Publication date: 2021-05-07 12:00

    The anatomical signatures of the mnemonic/emotional processes share many brain structures, one of which seems to constitute a bridge, the hippocampus. It functions as a structure that consolidates engrams. It is connected to the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and amygdala, structures that provide emotional salience. This is, from an evolutionary perspective, likely a selection of fitness relevant engrams. Inputs from such structures to the hippocampus increase the likelihood of engram consolidation and behavioral response into long-term deposits. The hippocampal input pathways appear to be of importance for encoding and retrieval processes. During first encounters, entorhinal temporoammonic inputs are necessary for identifying probable threats and encoding of environmental cues. We find that artificial silencing of gate keeper neurons, named oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) cells, increases approach and memory recall of novel cues in several tasks. Further, silencing of OLM cells mediates effective learning by increasing promiscuity in pyramidal cells in response to incoming sensory and/or emotional value inputs from other limbic structures, such as the basolateral amygdala. Depending on the dorsoventral position of the OLM cells, different phenotypes can be observed in different tasks. This is likely, at least in part, because of dorso-ventral differences in the connections between the hippocampus and other structures. In addition, OLM cells can control the specific oscillation frequency theta II (6-8 Hz), which appears in the ventral hippocampus and facilitates approach to predator odors. In conclusion, we show that the hippocampal circuit involving a subtype of OLM cells, is processing value of sensory cues through the temporoammonic pathway, and possibly affecting the basolateral amygdala inputs.

  • The Mystery of Inequality : Essays on Culture, Development, and Distributions Author: Olle Hammar Link: Publication date: 2021-05-07 11:15

    Essay I (with Daniel Waldenström): We estimate trends in global earnings dispersion across occupational groups by constructing a new database that covers 68 developed and developing countries between 1970 and 2018. Our main finding is that global earnings inequality has fallen, primarily during the 2000s and 2010s, when the global Gini coefficient dropped by 15 points and the earnings share of the world’s poorest half doubled. Decomposition analyses show earnings convergence between countries and within occupations, while within-country earnings inequality has increased. Moreover, the falling global inequality trend was driven mainly by real wage growth, rather than changes in hours worked, taxes or occupational employment.

    Essay II: I analyze the relationship between individualism and preferences for redistribution, using variation in immigrants’ countries of origin to capture the impact of cultural values and beliefs on personal attitudes towards income redistribution and equality. Using global individual-level survey data, I find strong support for the hypothesis that more individualistic cultures are associated with lower preferences for redistribution. At the same time, cultural assimilation in this dimension seems to take place relatively fast.

    Essay III (with Paula Roth and Daniel Waldenström): We provide new evidence on income inequality levels and trends in Sweden from 1968 to 2016. By combining data from tax and population registers, we construct a new dataset that includes the distribution of pre-tax total and post-tax disposable income for the full Swedish population since 1968. Our results indicate that the 1980s was the decade with the lowest level of overall income inequality in Sweden, while income inequality as measured by top income shares for the very top has increased steadily over the studied period.

    Essay IV (with Katarzyna Burzynska): We apply a panel of 331 microfinance institutions from 37 countries to investigate the relationship between social beliefs and microfinance financial performance over the period of 2003–2011. We find that microfinance institutions in countries with higher levels of trust and more collectivist culture have lower operating and default costs and charge lower interest rates. These results provide the first large cross-country evidence that social beliefs are important determinants of microfinance performance.

  • Rättighetsargumentet i skadeståndsrätten Author: Karolina Stenlund Link: Publication date: 2021-05-06 14:49

    År 2021 är det tydligt att mänskliga fri- och rättigheter utgör en del av svensk civilrätt. Överträdelser av rättigheter kan utgöra en grund för skadestånd. Tidigare var detta otänkbart. Denna bok innehålleren dogmatisk analys av den framväxande möjligheten att kräva skadestånd med grund i EKMR, 2 kap RF,EU-stadgan och Barnkonventionen. Bedömningen av förutsättningarna för ansvar, kausalitet och ersättningbehandlas ingående. Därtill beskrivs rättigheternas strålningseffekt.

    I boken skildras även den historiska utvecklingen av de mänskliga rättigheterna. Den internationella rättighetsdiskursen sätts i relation till den nationella skadeståndsrättens utveckling under 1900-talet. Närmare bestämt beskrivs hur åberopandet av förekomsten av en rättighet kom att bli ett giltigt argument i skadeståndsprocesser i svenska domstolar.Smakprov